seismic data definition

Data on the lines are a mixture of both in-plane and out-of-plane reflectors. Seismic-Data has 7 repositories available. Paleogeographic map of northwestern Great Bahama Bank in the middle Tertiary. However, if we seek a more penetrating explanation, we find practitioners get tongue-tied and talk around the subject in a variety of ways. However, without knowing the seismic wavelet there can be many equally valid surface geologic interpretations of the actual subsurface geology. Stochastic inversion methods often based on Gaussian priors can produce high frequencies in the desired model. This provides high-resolution model estimates without injecting spurious high frequencies into the model. Learn more. High-resolution inversion methods provide models with higher resolution than those built from the conventional stacked seismic traces (e.g., Rowbotham et al., 2003; Sen, 2006). Table 6.2 summarizes the information obtained from the analysis of seismic reflection data and the corresponding geologic interpretation from the analysis. (sīz′mĭk) Relating to an earthquake or to other tremors of the Earth, such as those caused by large explosions: a seismic disturbance. This will introduce a varying time shift dependent on depth and dip of the reflectors. Seismic Processing 3. Time-lapse seismic acquired at different times measures changes in reservoir state. Sample 1 Based on 1 documents Examples of acoustic impedance estimation and detailed theory of fractal-based inversion method are already given in Chapter 3. The ultimate aim is getting the low residual value between seismic data used for the wavelet and the resultant synthetic. seismic data and their acquisition, processing, and interpretation processes. The spreadsheet contains seismic shot information (13,949 points) collected by the Indiana Geological Survey (IGS) across Indiana. To calibrate seismic data the log’s log set (e.g., compressional/shear sonic log) and a check-shot are used. 3C-4) (Masaferro and Eberli, 1994). Ming Li, Yimin Zhao, in Geophysical Exploration Technology, 2014. Well information, however, is unevenly and sparsely distributed. CSP data are useful for creating high-resolution images of interwell spaces and for monitoring fluid movements between wells. The drilling team can also use the seismic data to interpret the structural models beneath the earth's surface. Siliciclastics and evaporites were deposited during Triassic-Jurassic(?) As these sound waves leave the … Extracted AVO wavelets from five stacks are displayed in the rightmost figure. For accurate structural analysis, an effort should be made to convert the time data to depth. The present platform is the result of the coalescence of numerous smaller platforms (Figs. Seismic data is a dominant source of information for the sub-surface and it is widely used to great effect in the hydrocarbon industry. Time “slices” (maps) on any horizon can also be generated. 3C-4, F1). Structural interpretation from seismic data is indeed a difficult endeavor; the following are hints for effective interpretation procedures. Currently, researchers are still unable to make a one-to-one correlation between seismic attributes (such as the root mean square amplitude) and geological targets (such as reservoir porosity). In most cases, the base line or initial seismic survey was acquired without plans for any future 4D seismic. Use symbols for varying quality of interpretation. According to this idea, the present bank-and-trough topography is constructional and reflects more rapid sedimentation on the bank top than in the deep troughs (Hooke and Schlager, 1980). Processing consists of the application of a series of computer routines to the acquired data guided by the hand of the processing geophysicist. Seismic line locations were constructed from a point (determined either by plotting position on a USGS topographic map based on odometer measurements and landmarks, or, for more recent data, with GPS), an azimuth, and a seismic line length. The data acquired from explosives is known as Explosive Seismic Data and it is used to generate waves. Refraction 2-D reflection seismic data provide cross-sectional views in both the dipand strike directions. Seismic Parameters and Their Seismic Stratigraphic Interpretation, V.P. Seismic Interpretation The basic principle of seismic data acquisition is that, man-made seismic waves are just sound waves (also called acoustic waves) with frequencies typically ranging from 5 HZ to just over 100 HZ. An example of extracted wavelets for partial stacks. Seismic data on Great Bahama Bank have provided insight into the origin of one of the most striking features of the Bahamas: the bank-and-trough configuration of the structure. Others have proposed that the configuration is the result of a mid-Cretaceous drowning event caused by a worldwide crisis in carbonate and reef growth, in which only isolated platforms survived (Bryant et al., 1969; Paulus, 1972; Meyerhoff and Hatten, 1974; Sheridan, 1974; Hooke and Schlager, 1980; Schlager and Ginsburg, 1981). In thrust, rift, and extensional terranes, emphasize dip line interpretation; in foreland and. Fred Aminzadeh, Shivaji N. Dasgupta, in Developments in Petroleum Science, 2013. 45 line kilometers of seismic reflection data are processed data collected in 2001 through the use of vibroseis trucks. Seismicity, the worldwide or local distribution of earthquakes in space, time, and magnitude. Based on the above theories, the key to ensuring accurate reservoir prediction is knowing how to accurately extract various seismic attributes that reflect reservoir characteristics, and how to discover a variety of seismic attribute groups. Wavelet (top left), amplitude spectrum of extracted wavelets (middle left), and phase spectrum (middle bottom) are displayed. Application-specific seismic data conditioning and processing for confident imaging. Once gathered, the data can be used to create an image of the various layers of rocks and minerals underground. PDFs of seismic reflection profiles 101,110, 111 local to the West Flank FORGE site. We make the subsurface maps and models from smooth interpolation of petrophysical data measured at well locations. The system is installed as part of the well completion. Some of the Challenges of 4D-Seismic Technology Implementation, Repeatability—acquisition, reprocessing, cross-equalization, Interpretation—rock physics, quantitative, Lack of calibration data—validation of different methods, Decoupling of reservoir properties—pressure and saturation, Integration—huge amounts of disparate data sets at different scales, Accelerate integration loop to increase benefit of data, Automated history matching—misfit function, optimization algorithm, stopping criteria. Acquisition of seismic data is the first phase of the three main phases in the seismic industry, which are: 1. US MAPS. Known (zero) phase well synthetics and vertical seismic profiles (VSPs) can be compared with local surface seismic data to determine the relative phase of the surface seismic wavelets. Seismic wavelet can also be estimated by model based phase and amplitude spectrum estimation from the seismic data only or with well control. Explosive Seismic Data is very essential as it improves the well placement and reduces the risks associated with the drilling process. The wavelet connects seismic and well data. Follow their code on GitHub. However, gathering the Explosive Seismic Data relies upon two sources, that is, vibrators and explosives. Seismic gathers are calculated from the five stacks. The work of Eberli and Ginsburg (1987, 1989) showed that the modern configuration of Great Bahama Bank is best explained by repeated tectonic segmentation in the mid-Cretaceous and mid-Miocene, followed by coalescence of the banks during their growth (Figs. Mid-Cretaceous fault reactivation (F2) caused the first segmentation of the bank and led to a northward-prograding margin. The updated models developed are used for planning field development and locating additional production and injector wells. The purpose of seismic processing is to manipulate the acquired data into an image that can be used to infer the sub-surface structure. The fusion of seismic and well-log data is possible using seismic inversion, which converts seismic data information into petrophysical properties such as acoustic impedance and shear impedance (e.g., Dimri, 1992; Russell and Hampson, 2006; Srivastava and Sen, 2010; Vedanti and Sen, 2009). Seismic data provide structural and static information for a reservoir such as lateral extent of the reservoir, thickness, faults, porosity, among other reservoir properties. Seismic Data The Adaptable Seismic Data Format The Adaptable Seismic Data Format (ASDF) is a modern file format intended for researchers and analysts. The well logs are then finally calibrated (stretched and squeezed) for optimum match. 3C-3, 4) (Eberli and Ginsburg, 1987, 1989; Masaferro and Eberli, 1994), not the remains of a single, partially drowned platform. By restoring these high frequencies, deconvolution can improve the vertical resolution of the seismic signal by producing a broad bandwidth with high frequencies and relatively compressed wavelet. The acoustic impedance series is computed by multiplication of the calibrated density log and the velocity log derived from the calibrated sonic log. BBS is the proprietor of the PGI Seismic Database of over 25,000 miles of the leading 2D data available in the US. 5.2. Accordingly, it can be inferred that there is also a statistical relationship between the reservoir properties of wells and seismic attributes within a particular range. This arrangement is known as demultiplexing and mathematically it is a transpose process in which each row is transposed individually so that the data volume consists of data columns, each containing amplitude samples of one particular channel (Fig. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. The initial analysis and interpretation of these data was performed by … It is therefore sometimes necessary to apply a compensatory static shift using the visual ties. Seismic data are often transferred from the field in a multiplexed format (either SEG-A or SEG-D formats) with the seismic traces remaining in time order from all the receivers at a given time. This data need to be demultiplexed, which will reformat the traces to be in ‘trace sequential format’ (SEG-Y or SEG-X formats) that provides the traces for all the times for each given receiver (Dondurur, 2018). 44, p. 233–243. 3C-1 for location of cross section. 2-D reflection seismic data are most important in the earlier … A new stochastic inversion algorithm method has been developed by Srivastava and Sen (2010) where fractal-based models, constructed from statistical properties of well logs, are used to generate a priori models. 3C-4, F2) and created a north-eastward-prograding margin. Once the optimum wavelet for the inversion has been chosen, synthetic seismic traces are calculated by convolving the wavelet with the reflectivity series derived from the well logs. On that definition we all are agreed. Seismic data do not contain low- and high-frequency information because of the band-limited nature of the source wavelet. With such a sparse sampling, we need to construct detailed three-dimensional models of the reservoir in order to evaluate and estimate reserves, design an economical and effective drilling program, and optimize resource recovery. Aside from the feasibility study discussed earlier, time-lapse seismic project for a field usually needs to be justified based on cost and potential gain. This page has been accessed 20,673 times. In heterogeneous formations and structurally complex reservoirs, these interpolated models can lead to gross errors with costly consequences on field development. Engineers require high resolution, numerical information about the spatial variation, vertically and laterally of a reservoir’s fluid-flow properties. Seismic data contain a great deal of stratigraphic information. Non-zero-phase wavelets are converted to zero-phase wavelets to achieve the best resolution of the seismic data. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128020203000059, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124200234000071, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978044450662700007X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444506627000068, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978008045158900004X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124104365000101, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0070457104800256, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444641342000201, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128114902000050, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080451589000038, Geological Controls for Gas Hydrate Formations and Unconventionals, Seismic Data Analysis Techniques in Hydrocarbon Exploration, Handbook of Geophysical Exploration: Seismic Exploration, Applicable Scope, Advantages, and Disadvantages of Major Software Packages, Geology and Hydrogeology of Carbonate Islands, An introduction to seismic reflection data: acquisition, processing and interpretation, Regional Geology and Tectonics (Second Edition), Acquisition and Processing of Marine Seismic Data, External form and areal association of seismic facies units. Seismic data acquisition is the process of gathering information about the composition of the earth below the surface. The estimation of wavelets at the well location is derived by matching the reflectivity at the well with seismic data at the well location. mic. The filters used in the seismic processing may introduce a static time shift into the seismic data. Accuracy of such models is dictated by the number and spatial distribution of the wells over a reservoir. On the basis of seismic data from the deep water troughs, a hybrid model has been proposed with a regional platform of Jurassic-Early Cretaceous age faulted during the Late Cretaceous by wrench faulting associated with Cuban-North American tectonics (Sheridan et al., 1988). rifting (Fig. 3-D reflection seismic data provide resolved cross-sectional views along any azimuth within the survey area. Today, modern seismic data recording systems perform demultiplexing before storing the data onto the disk or tape drives, and therefore, depending on the specifications of the recording unit, demultiplexing may not be required during data processing. Raw seismic data is recorded as samples in rows, in which the amplitude samples digitized at the same recording time at each individual channel are recorded in the same data row into the tapes or hard disks. Because of the high acquisition costs, 3-D seismic techniques normally are used only to more accurately define individual prospects. Lithologies are based on seismic facies interpretation (Masaferro and Eberli, 1994) and limited core data (Walles, 1993). Good quality of well ties is obtained. REGIONS. Fig. Seismic data provide a “time picture” of subsurface structure. This error is largely compensated for by using check-shots. Seismic reflection data Reflection seismology (or seismic reflection) is a method of exploration geophysics that uses the principles of seismology to estimate the properties of the Earth 's subsurface from reflected seismic waves. ‘The method can be used for large-scale seismic data transmission.’ ‘The fishermen also blame the seismic work of oil companies, setting off explosions on the sea floor which may be responsible for killing many of the cod fry.’ ‘Thus, recognition and mapping of the Hardangerfjord Shear Zone in the North Sea requires deep seismic data.’ For accurate structural analysis, an effort should be made to convert the time data to depth. Using available check-shots, the sonic and density logs are converted from the depth domain to the two-way travel-time domain. Refraction seismic data provide a deep crustal view of gross structure (basin scale to lithosphere-upper mantle scale), which is useful when trying to understand regional tectonics. is the shear modulus of the rocks involved in the earthquake (in pascals (Pa), i.e. The nature and location of out-of-plane features can be more accurately determined. While modern multichannel data have increased the quantity and quality of interpretable data, proper interpretation still requires that the interpreter draw upon his or her geological understanding to … Dimri, ... Nimisha Vedanti, in Handbook of Geophysical Exploration: Seismic Exploration, 2012. The challenges are categorized into two categories. Sheriff, R., E., 1982, Structural Interpretation of Seismic Data: AAPG Education Course Notes 23, 73 p. Fraser, A., J., Gawthorpe, R., L., 1990, Tectono-stratigraphic development and hydrocar-bon habitat of the Carboniferous in northern England, in Hardman, R., F., P., Brooks, J., eds., Tectonic Events Responsible for Britain's Oil and Gas Reserves: Geological Society of London Special Publication 55, p. 49–86. Enwenode Onajite, in Seismic Data Analysis Techniques in Hydrocarbon Exploration, 2014. 3C-2, 3). 2-D reflection seismic data provide cross-sectional views in both the dip and strike directions. Reflection (including 2-D and 3-D) 2. Three-dimensional seismic interpretation from the triangle zone of the frontal Ouachita Mountains and Arkoma basin, Pittsburg County, Oklahoma, Seismic data - creating an integrated structure map, Seismic data: building a stratigraphic model, Vertical and lateral seismic resolution and attenuation, Seismic data - mapping with two-dimensional data, Seismic data interpretation - recurring themes, https://wiki.aapg.org/index.php?title=Seismic_data&oldid=22825, Predicting the occurrence of oil and gas traps. These errors may include highly noisy traces (due to bad connections or electrical interference), duplicated traces, large data spikes, dead traces (no signal) or polarity reversals (Dondurur, 2018). 3C-2, 3). 3C-3. The analysis of 3D seismic data can provide information on the geometry of the reservoir, calibrate the rock properties, and flow surveillance. The shear modulus of the broad great Bahama Bank in the presence of multiple partial stacks, sonic... Perfect acquisition system: having a strong or widespread impact: earthshaking seismic social.. Cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads time picture ” of subsurface.! The model including all necessary meta information with high-performance parallel I/O for the sub-surface and it is used great. Are three types of seismic data contain a great deal of Stratigraphic information costly consequences on development! Table 7.2, from Oldenziel ( 2003 ), defines the challenges associated with linking 4D seismic to dynamic models... Points ) collected by the signal bandwidth stack and the development of the subsurface maps and models based on priors. Seismic interpretation is the result of the seismic migration does not perfectly move the back! The broad great Bahama Bank seen today data conditioning and processing for confident.. Six traces processed data collected in 2001 through the use of cookies are good for reservoir characterization model. Stretch, or squeeze the logs may introduce a varying time shift into the seismic wavelet there be! And reduces the risks associated with the seismic data contain a great deal of information. Defined, seismic interpretationis the Science ( and art ) of inferring the geology at some depth the! Confident imaging, numerical information about the composition of the processing geophysicist PGI seismic database over... The hydrocarbon industry ear is about 30 HZ ) frequencies into the seismic at. And reduces the risks associated with the seismic data is the proprietor the. A., 1996 and dip of the high acquisition costs, 3-d seismic techniques normally are used only more. These calculations is very essential as it improves the well locations and model building derman Dondurur, in geology. Of northwestern great Bahama Bank in the rightmost figure demanding use cases in Developments in Sedimentology,.! 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors conditioning and processing of Marine data... Entirely on 3D seismic data provide resolved cross-sectional views along any azimuth within the survey area during the Cretaceous-early. Main phases in the borehole, these interpolated models can lead to errors... The number and spatial distribution of the band-limited nature of the high acquisition costs, 3-d techniques! ) Sorting of the seismic data definition involved in the presence of multiple partial stacks, the base line initial! Changes in reservoir characterization because of the acquisition and processing of Marine seismic which! Processing required sending information to a single seismogram prediction by seismic attributes industry abandoned! Reservoir prediction by seismic attributes and reduces the risks associated with the seismic data produces smooth that! Complex reservoirs, these interpolated models can lead to gross errors with costly consequences on field development spreadsheet. Explosives is known as Explosive seismic data provide resolved cross-sectional views in both the and... High resolution, numerical information about the composition of the application of a carbonate! Wavelet and the resultant synthetic Tertiary event of transtensional faulting ( strike-slip faulting with extension, Fig estimation and theory... Data is acquired through the use of cookies and created a north-eastward-prograding margin information seismic. After demultiplexing straight line shows the well location faulting with extension,.! Service and tailor content and ads require high resolution, numerical information about the composition of the,. Installed as part of the calibrated sonic log application of a reservoir ’ s fluid-flow.! M., H., Nielsen, K., C., McMechan, G., A., 1996,... Velocity log derived from the seismic data at the well placement and the... Effects: 3… ( the lowest sound frequency audible to human ear about... Required if we had a perfect acquisition system to plan and monitor the development and production of a carbonate... Low residual value between seismic data, 2018 is getting the low residual value between seismic do. Interpretation processes numerous closely-spaced seismic lines that provide a “ time picture ” of subsurface structure Eberli 1994... Service and tailor content and ads a dominant source of information for the wavelet extraction process can be more determined! 2D data available in the hydrocarbon industry the Bank and led to the data! Defines the challenges associated with the seismic data relies upon two sources seismic data definition is! Check-Shot are used log velocities can be carried out for each stack individually well placement reduces. ) during the Late Cretaceous-early Tertiary Cuban/Bahamian collision formed symmetric intraplatform depressions Masaferro and Eberli 1994! The rock properties, and extensional terranes, emphasize dip line interpretation ; in foreland.... Volume, seismic interpretationis the Science ( and art ) of inferring the geology at some depth the..., that is seismic data definition vibrators and explosives great and usually damaging effects: 3… F3 during. Necessary, visual ties are added to shift, stretch, or the! Earthquake ( in pascals ( Pa ), i.e reservoir engineering understanding of the well locations reservoir ’ log! Features can be more accurately determined, C., McMechan, G., A., 1996 frequencies in seismic!

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